INDO-GREEK (Yavana) coins,
    The Greeks under Alexander came to India in 327 BC, crossed the Indus in Pakistan, fought a few battles with Mauryan vassals and retreated.  Alexander wanted to go on but his soldiers threatened mutiny.  In the aftermath of Alexander's demise the Mauryans took back Pakistan but the Greeks held on to most of Afghanistan, which became the eastern provinces of the Seleukid empire.  The region became independent in 206 BC, and expanded eastward again into Pakistan.  Greeks were pushed out of western Afghanistan c. 110 BC by the Scythians.  At about the same time a revolt in the east split the Greek realm into two kingdoms.  The western kingdom (the "old" one) was extinguished by the Kushans around 1 BC.  The eastern one was nibbled from the west by the Scythians until the last remnant in Jammu was conquered around 10 BC.
    I think it is important to keep in mind that this is not a series of consecutive kings we're looking at here.  It is, rather, a set of interrelated clans, the coin-issuing leaders and subleaders often at war with each other, other times in alliance yea unto marriage, the marriages frequently, as time went on, with the Scythians who eventually obliterated the Greeks as a political force.  Even if we did have firm dates we would be seeing overlapping periods of rule, cities and mints changing hands over and over again, travelling mints as the leaders ran around with their armies doing what leaders did back then.
    Think Somalia.  A case can be made that what is going on there is the "normal" state of human politics.

INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Euthydemos, c. 230-190 BC, 24mm nickel didrachm, MA-1649, his bust R / tripod, Merv mint, aF/VF $350.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Euthydemos, c. 230-190 BC, 22mm bronze dichalkon, MA-nl (v. #1617), SG-7523, head Herakles R / horse, aF $55.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Euthydemos, c. 230-190 BC, 22mm bronze dichalkon, MA-nl (v. #1617), SG-7523, head Herakles R / horse, aVG $30.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Antimachos, c. 171-160 BC, silver drachm, Nike advancing L / horseman R, Pushkalavati, MA-1672, cleaned F $47.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Antimachos, c. 171-160 BC, silver drachm, Nike advancing L / horseman R, Pushkalavati, MA-1672, VF $70.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Antimachos, c. 171-160 BC, silver drachm, Nike advancing L / horseman R, Pushkalavati, MA-1672, a bit scruffy, VF $63.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Antimachos, c. 171-160 BC, silver drachm, Nike advancing L / horseman R, Pushkalavati, MA-1672, bits of crust, aVF $53.00 sold 12/10/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Antimachos, c. 171-160 BC, silver drachm, MA-1673, Nike advancing L / horseman R, Pushkalavati, mushy rev. die, F+ $45.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Antimachos, c. 171-160 BC, silver drachm, MA-1674, Nike advancing L / horseman R, Taxila, XF $133.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Antimachos, c. 171-160 BC, silver drachm, MA-1674, Nike advancing L / horseman R, Taxila, porous, cleaned F+ $43.00
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276-57. INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Antimachos, c. 171-160 BC, silver drachm, MA-1674v3, Nike advancing L / horseman R, no mark, F $39.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Antimachos, c. 171-160 BC, silver drachm, MA-1674, Nike adv L / horseman R, Taxila, porous surface, VF/F $38.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Antimachos, c. 171-160 BC, silver drachm, MA-1674, Nike advancing L / horseman R, Taxila, bent, VF $35.00 sold 11/12/2007
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Pantaleon, c. 171-160 BC, 22x18mm rectangular bronze 1 1/2 karshapana, MA-1695, lion R / goddess L, Gandhara, crude aF $40.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, Eukratides, 171-135 BC, 22mm square hemiobol, MA-1732v1, helmeted bust R / Dioscuroi R, horses at rest, right horse's & guy's head turned back to converse, Balkh, rare variety, F $150.00 sold 12/9/2013
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274-19. INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotos I, c. 160-150 BC, silver square drachm, MA-1752v1, SG-7591, elephant / bull, porous aVF $51.00 sold 6/18/2012
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotos I, c. 160-150 BC, silver square drachm, MA-1753, elephant / bull, Chach, light scratch on bull, 2 small black spots, nice F $63.00 sold
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b) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm square bronze hemiobol, Apollo standing / tripod, MA-1759, Chach, slightly porous, F $43.00
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j) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm square bronze hemiobol, Apollo standing / tripod, MA-1759, Chach, VF $58.00 sold 11/12/2007
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e) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm square bronze hemiobol, Apollo standing / tripod, MA-1759+, SG-7594, Taxila, small MP monogram at Apollo's L foot & M-nl mark of 5 dots to R of tripod, F $40.00
Coin is darker than image.  Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

h) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm bronze hemiobol, Apollo standing / tripod, MA-1759+, SG-7594, Taxila, large MP monogram to R of tripod, VF $63.00
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27157. INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm bronze hemiobol, Apollo standing / tripod, MA-1759tv2, SG-7594, Apollo standing / tripod, Taxila, small MTR monogram to R of tripod, VF $38.00 sold 10/16/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm bronze hemiobol, Apollo standing / tripod, MA-1759+, SG-7594, Taxila, large MP monogram to R of tripod, F+ $32.00 sold 11/12/2007
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 23mm square bronze hemiobol, MA-1759vyz1, SG-7594, Apollo standing / tripod, Pushkalavati, decent F-VF $46.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm square bronze hemiobol, MA-1759tv2, SG-7594, Apollo standing / tripod, small MTR monogram R of tripod, crusty rims, VF $34.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm square bronze hemiobol, MA-1759tv2, SG-7594, Apollo standing / tripod, small MTR monogram R of tripod, small areas of scraped field rev., VF $38.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm square bronze hemiobol, MA-1759tv2, SG-7594,  Apollo standing / tripod, Taxila, small MTR monogram to R of tripod, some dirt, bits of crust, few scratches, VF $48.00 sold 12/8/2011
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s) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22x23mm bronzehemiobol, MA-1759tv2, Apollo standing / tripod, Taxila, small MR monogram to R of tripod, F $28.00
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i) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22x23mm bronze hemiobol, MA-1759tv2, Apollo standing / tripod, Taxila, small MR monogram to R of tripod, VF $49.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 23mm square bronze hemiobol, MA-1759vyz1, Apollo standing / tripod, Pushkalavati (S. workshop mark from M's table to R of tripod), VG/F $26.00 sold 6/7/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm square bronze hemiobol, MA-1759tv1, Apollo standing / tripod, Taxila, large MR monogram to R of tripod, bits of crust, F/VF+ $27.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm square bronze hemiobol, MA-1759+, SG-7594, Apollo standing / tripod, eastern looking art, F $38.00 sold 11/1/2011
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotus I, c. 160-150 BC, 22mm square bronze hemiobol, MA-1760, Apollo standing / tripod, Jammu, decent F $32.00 sold 6/7/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Apollodotos I, c. 160-150 BC, 12/13mm square bronze hemichalkous, bull / tripod, 1.1g, MA-unlisted, VF+ $85.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver tetradrachm, MA-1765, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, Pushkalavati, some horn spots in fields, nice F $450.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver tetradrachm, MA-1765v1, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield, Pushkalavati, some horn silver around periphery, nice aVF $450.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver tetradrachm, MA-1767, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield, Pushkalavati, aVF $310.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver tetradrachm, MA-1768, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield, Pushkalavati, VF $335.00 sold 4/15/2013
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1768v, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield, Pushkalavati, mark as MA-1763, XF+ $95.00 sold 11/20/2009
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1769, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield, Pushkalavati, horn silver, VF $53.00 sold 11/12/2007
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1769, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield, Pushkalavati, porous F $18.00 sold 1/12/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield, MA-1772, Chach, bit of horn, some scratches in rev. field, VF $39.00 sold 4/16/2013
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BM1769-5) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1769, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield,  Pushkalavati, mark R, VG $29.50
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BM1769-3) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L with shield, Pushkalavati, mark L, MA-1769, porous F $26.50
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BM1769-7) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1769, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield, Pushkalavati, mark L, VF $66.00
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BM1769v-4) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1769v, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, Pushkalavati, mark R (from table), few dark adhesions obv, VF $38.00 sold 11/12/2007
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BM1769v-3) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1769v, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield, Pushkalavati, mark R (from table), VF $62.00 sold 2/13/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L with shield, Pushkalavati, MA-1771, bits of crust, VF $24.00 sold 11/9/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, raised shield, MA-1772v1, Chach, mark L, XF $89.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver tetradrachm, MA-1775v1, helmeted bust R / Athena standing L, Pushkalavati, mark as MA-1781, nice aVF $465.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver tetradrachm, MA-1776, helmeted bust R / Athena standing L, Pushkalavati, mark as MA-1781, VF-VF+ $550.00 sold 8/4/2007
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver tetradrachm, MA-1775, helmeted bust R / Pallas standing L, Pushkalavati, scratches, F $150.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1779, helmeted bust R / Pallas standing L, Pushkalavati, (wrong pic in MA) light porosity, VF $53.00 sold 12/10/2008
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b) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1779v2, helmeted bust R / Pallas standing L, Pushkalavati, some horn silver, scratches, aVF $36.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1779v3, helmeted bust R / Pallas standing L, Panjhir, mark as MA-1774, mark R, horn silver, F $25.00 sold 12/19/2007
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1780, helmeted bust R / Pallas standing L, Pushkalavati, porous VF $52.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1782, helmeted bust R / Pallas standing L, Chach, porous, cleaned VF $35.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1790, bare bust L with javelin / Pallas standing R, sloping shield, Taxila, VG $30.00
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274-20. INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1792, SG-7604, bare bust L with javelin / Pallas standing R, sloping shield, lightly porous in unimportant spots, VF $57.00
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275-19. INDO-GREEK, barbarous imitation of Menander drachm, copper, traces of silver plating, crude F $45.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 18mm square bronze dichalkon, MA-1821, helmeted bust R / Nike standing R, Pushkalavati, aVF $43.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 18mm square bronze dichalkon, MA-1821v1, helmeted bust R / Nike standing R with wreath & palm, Taxila, MT monogram, aVF/F $38.00 sold 6/7/2008
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INDO-GREEK, barbarous imitation of Menander drachm, good silver, diademed bust R / Pallas standing L, blundered legends, lots of heavy scratches IN THE DIES, cleaned nice VF $225.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver tetradrachm, MA-1783, bare bust L with javelin / Pallas standing R, raised shield, Pushkalavati, aVF $350.00 sold 8/14/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1786, armored bust L with javelin / Pallas standing R, raised shield, Pushkalavati, 18mm broad flan, well centered, excellent VF+ $85.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1786, armored bust L with javelin / Pallas standing R, raised shield, Pushkalavati, edge chips, aF $21.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1787, armored bust L with javelin / Pallas standing R, raised shield, Taxila, bit of crusty horn obv., VF $46.00 sold
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276-59. INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1788, bare bust L with javelin / Pallas standing R, raised shield, Taxila, VF $67.00 sold 9/22/2011
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1788, armored bust L with javelin / Pallas standing R, raised shield, Taxila, corroded VG $16.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, silver drachm, MA-1790, bare bust L with javelin / Pallas standing R, Taxila, thin horn silver, XF $89.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 22mm square bronze obol, MA-1801, ox head facing / tripod, Pushkalavati, aVG $32.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 22mm square bronze obol, MA-1806, bust Pallas R / owl R, Pushkalavati, F $63.00 sold
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 22mm square bronze hexachalkoi, MA-1812, head of Pallas R / Nike standing R, Pushkalavati, aF $33.00 sold 9/6/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 21mm bronze dichalkon, MA-1812v, helmeted bust of Pallas R / Nike standing R, Pushkalavati, VG $24.00 sold 11/12/2007
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 19x20mm bronze dichalkon, MA-1813, helmeted bust R / Nike standing R, Pushkalavati, VF $92.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 21mm square bronze dichalkon, MA-1814, helmeted bust R / Nike standing R, Pushkalavati, F $35.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 21mm square bronze dichalkon, MA-1814, helmeted bust R / Nike standing R, Pushkalavati, VG $24.00 sold 9/6/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 18mm bronze dichalkon, MA-1815v, helmeted bust R / Nike standing R, Taxila, mark as MA-1811, a bit rough, F $26.00 sold 6/7/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 21mm square dichalkon, MA-1818v, helmeted bust R / Nike standingg R, Taxila, VF $112.00 sold 2/22/2010
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a) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 16mm square chalkous, MA-nl, SG-7616, elephant head R / club, Taxila, MAT monogram L of club, “A” to R, VF $36.00 sold 9/5/2013
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c) INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 16mm bronze chalkous, MA-nl, SG-7616v3, elephant head R / club, Taxila, MIT monogram R of club, VF+ $55.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 16mm bronze chalkous, MA-nl, SG-7616v6,  elephant head R / club, Pushkalavati, monogram L of club, A right, VF+ $63.00
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 16mm square bronze chalkous, MA-nl, SG-7616, elephant head R / club, Taxila, Taxila?, Q-A below elephant head, Kharosthi Sa R of club, F $28.00 sold 6/7/2008
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INDO-GREEK, UNITED KINGDOM, Menander, c. 160-145 BC, 16mm bronze square chalkous, MA-nl, SG-7616v2, elephant head R / club, Taxila?, no marks, aXF $55.00
Click picture for enlargement.
   You've heard of Menander, haven't you?  No?  Along with Apollodotos I he was a sub-king under Eukratides, who had raised a successful revolt against Antimachos.  Menander was in charge of northeastern Afghanistan and part of the Pakistani Northwest Frontier.  His region had silver mines, which he made extensive use of, making his drachms the most common in the Indo-Greek series.  But that's not why he's famous.  He was a great patron of Buddhism, enough so that he shows up with a long student-patron part in the Buddhist sacred texts.
    By the way, Pushkalavati is close enough to Peshawar that I allow myself to consider them the same place, though the more punctilious will hasten to remind that the old ruins are some miles away.  Taxila is about 50 miles away.  Kapisa is basically Kabul.  Gandhara is the region of which the city of Qandahar is the capital.  Panjshir in northern Afghanistan is where the silver came from.  Ahmad Shah Masoud, the point man opposing the Taliban, whose assassination presaged 9/11, was in Panjshir.

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